LEGAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE IN NATURA 2000 AREAS
According to an indexing effort of the provisions of several administrative and penalty laws, as foreseeing especially in Law 1650/1986 and Law 4042/2012, as well as prefectural and police orders, following activities are prohibited within the protected areas NATURA 2000:
• any activity within the absolute protection areas (the “core” as defined in the respective management plans/ specific environmental studies). Unfortunately Crete has only one management body for the Samaria Gorge. The respective management plan has not being published in the provided form of the Presidential Decree. The rest 53 protected areas have neither a management plan, nor a management body.
• hunting of wildlife,
• hunting without hunting license (for lacking of marking and registration of hunting dogs the fines are ranging from 300 - 3000 €. For hunting dogs lacking of a vaccination book the fines are ranging from 5.000 - 15.000 €),
• hunting of non-huntable species (according to a yearly published Ministerial Decree)
• hunting in residential areas and within a radius of 250 meters away of them,
• hunting in cultivated and fenced land,
• hunting in wetlands,
• hunting within a radius of 300 meters away of the coastline,
• hunting in fire-stricken areas,
• hunting in archaeological sites,
• hunting in areas with electricity units,
• hunting in case of snowfall,
• hunting around dams,
• hunting when the local provisions stipulate (e.g. the hunting ban for ten years (until 27/07/2025) in an area of 1,535 hectares at “Rousos Lakos” of the Municipality of Hersonissos (no. 1625 / 16.07.2015 (GG B '1611), or the hunting ban in “Aposelemis Dam” in Heraklion in an area of 2,804 acres to 1 March 2030 (no. 1787 / 11.08.2015 (Government Gazette B' 1939)
• use of poisoned baits,
• eradication of all kinds of aromatic shoots, medicinal, beehives, flowers and ornamental plants, seedling, shrub, shrubs and grass,
• collecting for marketing of plants “Malotira”, Marjoram, “Diktamos”, Sage and Oregano in all areas that are part of the protection network Natura 2000.
Following activities are allowed within the protected areas NATURA 2000:
• rural activities,
• livestock farming,
• sporting activities,
• leisure activities
• road construction after a Special Ecological Assessment (impact study within NATURA 2000),
• the hunting of species listed in the Ministerial Decree 127568/2533 / 07.08.2015 (Government Gazette B 1670) which allows to hunt hares, ferrets, thrush, woodcocks etc.
• creation of mountaineering shelters,
• tourism and industrial plants, quarries, mines after ecological assessment,
• collection “Malotira”, Marjoram, Sage and Oregano for individual needs (= maximum 500 gram p.P. The flowering during maturation time, using a range or a knife)
• The collection of herbs for marketing only with a permission of the Forest Service.
LEGAL PROVISIONS IN GENERAL
In reference to surface- and ground water protection, Greece adopted Law 3199/2003 and Presidential Decree 51/2007 in fulfillment of Directive 2000/60/EC concerning. The latter provides the separation of the land into river basin districts and the drafting management plans. These shall be revised every six years and provide regulatory and monitoring tools for a sound water status.
In reference to waste management, Greece adopted a new framework Law 4042/2012 (GG Α΄ 24/2012), in fulfillment of the Waste Framework Directive 98/2008/EC and the Directive 99/2008/EC. Articles 2 to 9 harmonize the national law with the provisions of Directive 2008/99/EC concerning the protection of the environment through criminal law and foresee sanctions for cases causing or likely to cause pollution or degradation of the environment. Articles 10 to 48 of Law 4042/2012 harmonize national law with the provisions of Directive 2008/98/EC concerning waste and the repealing of certain Directives. The mentioned Articles establish measures to protect the environment and human health by preventing or reducing the adverse impacts of waste production and waste management and reducing the overall impact of the use of resources. The adoption of Law 4042/2012, combined with Law 3854/2010 (GG A’ 94/2010), relating to alternative management of specific waste streams, provides a comprehensive legal framework for waste management.
In reference to the prevention and remedying environmental damage, Greece adopted Presidential Decree (P.D.) 148/2009 in fulfillment of Directive 2004/35/EC, as amended on environmental liability. Within the scope of P.D. 148/2009 the operator of an activity bears the costs for the preventive and remedial actions taken caused by his operations.